Adrian Heathfield – British writer and curator. Professor of Performance and Visual Culture at the University of Roehampton, London. He writes on, curates and creates performance. He is the author of Out of Now, a monograph on the artist Tehching Hsieh, editor of Ally and Live: Art and Performance and co-editor of Perform, Repeat, Record and of numerous essays.
Amelia Jones – American art historian, art theorist, art critic, author, professor and curator. Her work specializes in feminist art, body art, performance art, video art, identity politics, cultural biases and Dadaism. She’s the author of Body Art/Performing the Subject; Self/Image: Technology, Representation, and the Contemporary Subject; and others books
Body – body/self with all of its apparent racial, sexual, gender, class, and other apparent or unconscious identifications
Cindy Sherman – American photographer and filmmaker whose self-portraits offer critiques of gender and identity. What made Sherman famous is the use of her own body in roles or personas in her work, with her seminal series Untitled Film Stills (1977–1980) being particularly important. She examines and distorts femininity as a social construct. Sherman lives and works in New York.
Disciplinary Authority – the modern societal structures that excerce modes of control and subjugation in the body in order to make it productive in capitalism.
Dwight Conquergood (1949 – 2004) – was an ethnographer who is best known for his work with the Hmong of southeast Asia, street gangs of Chicago, and refugees in Thailand and Gaza. Conquergood’s work focused on those marginalized by society. Later in life, Conquergood began researching the purpose, rituals and societal implications of the death penalty in America. Author of I Am a Shaman: A Hmong Life Story with Ethnographic Commentary (1989), among others.
Event / Happening – term used by American artist Allan Kaprow form the mid 1960s to designate his performative events that loked like once behaved behaviors
Explicit – Clear, straighforward, direct, unambiguous
Erving Goffman (1922 – 1982) – was a Canadian-American sociologist, social psychologist, and writer, considered by some “the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century”. His best-known contribution to social theory is his study of symbolic interaction. This took the form of dramaturgical analysis, beginning with his 1956 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Goffman’s other major works include Asylums (1961), Stigma (1963), Interaction Ritual (1967), Frame Analysis (1974), and Forms of Talk (1981). His major areas of study included the sociology of everyday life, social interaction, the social construction of self, social organization (framing) of experience, and particular elements of social life such as total institutions and stigmas
Franko B – Italian performance artist based in London. His work was originally based on the bloody and ritualised violation of his own body. Later on he embraced a wide variety of media including video, photography, painting, installation, and sculpture.
Guerilla Girls – anonymous group of feminist, female artists devoted to fighting sexism and racism within the art world. The group formed in New York City in 1985 with the mission of bringing gender and racial inequality into focus within the greater arts community. They employ culture jamming in the form of posters, books, billboards, and public appearances to expose discrimination and corruption. To remain anonymous, members wear gorilla masks and use pseudonyms that refer to deceased female artists. According to GG1, identities are concealed because issues matter more than individual identities.
Guillermo Gómez-Pena – Born in 1955 and raised in Mexico City, Gómez-Peña came to the US in 1978. His work, which includes performance art, video, audio, installations, poetry, journalism, and cultural theory, explores cross-cultural issues, immigration, the politics of language, “extreme culture” and new technologies in the era of globalization. For twenty years, Gómez-Peña has been exploring intercultural issues with the use of mixed genres and experimental languages. Continually developing multi-centric narratives and large-scale performance projects from a border perspective, Gómez-Peña creates what critics have termed “Chicano cyber-punk performances,” and “ethno-techno art.” In his work, cultural borders have moved to the center while the alleged mainstream is pushed to the margins and treated as exotic and unfamiliar, placing the audience members in the position of “foreigners” or “minorities.” Through his organization La Pocha Nostra, Gómez-Peña has focused very intensely in the notion of collaboration across national borders, race, gender and generation as an act of citizen diplomacy and as a means to create “ephemeral communities.”
Jérôme Bel – French experimental choreographer with a reputation for being controversial. His characteristic choreographic style is known as non-dance, typified by his 2001 piece The Show Must Go On. The Paris-based artist provokes his audiences with witty, cerebral presentations that often break down the traditional barrier between performer and audience, and that pose questions about virtuosity and the nature of dance. Other works: Jérôme Bel (1995); Shirtologie (1997); Xavier Le Roy (2000); Véronique Doisneau (2004); Gala (2015).
La Ribot – María Ribot Manzano (Madrid, 1962). Performer, choreographer and visual artist. Her projects explore and examine observation through the body, space, image and movement. She has contributed to the development of what is known as ‘the new dance’ in Spain since the 1980s. Her work calls into question the limits of time, space and the concept of dance.
Marina Abramovic – is a Serbian performance artist, writer, and art filmmaker. Her work explores body art, endurance art and feminist art, the relationship between performer and audience, the limits of the body, and the possibilities of the mind. Being active for over four decades, Abramović refers to herself as the “grandmother of performance art”. She pioneered a new notion of identity by bringing in the participation of observers, focusing on “confronting pain, blood, and physical limits of the body”.
Michel Foucault (1926 – 1984) – French Philosopher, social theorist and literary critic. Foucault’s theories primarily address the relationship between power and knowledge, and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist, he rejected these labels. Main books: Madness and Civilization (1961); Discipline and Punish (1975); The History of Sexuality (1976 – 1984).
Normativity (norm) – the set of norms that subjugate and control the body in the capitalist scenario. Example: the assumption of the artist as a white heterosexual male.
Performance – Any human action that is restored behavior and promotes interaction, such as everyday life (cooking, socializing), in the arts (designation that varies culturally and historically), in sports and entertainment, in business (performance is related to effectivness), technology, sex, ritual and play.
Performance Studies – to study any event or discipline “as” performance
Philip Auslander – Teaches performance studies at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Georgia. His research interests include performance theory, performance and technology, and popular music. He is the author of six books, including Theory for Performance Studies: A Student’s Guide, Liveness: Performance in a Mediatized Culture and Performing Glam Rock: Gender and Theatricality in Popular Music.
Practice – modes of acting, procedures that apply ideas, methods and/or beliefs / repeat an activity or exercis ein order to improve its “performance”
Rebecca Schneider – Professor of Theatre Arts and Performance Studies at Brown University, USA. She is the author of The Explicit Body in Performance and Performing Remains: Art and War in Times of Theatrical Reenactment, as well as numerous essays.
Restored Behavior / Twice Behaved Behavior – performed actions that people train for. Any action we engage in is a different combination of behaviors previously learned and rehearsed.
Richard Schechner – Professor at TISCH – NYU, one of the founders of Performance Studies. He is a performance theorist, theater director, author. Schechner combines his work in performance theory with innovative approaches to the broad spectrum of performance including theatre, play, ritual, dance, music, popular entertainments, sports, politics, performance in everyday life, etc. in order to understand performative behavior not just as an object of study, but also as an active artistic-intellectual practice. His books include Public Domain, Environmental Theater, Performance Theory, The Future of Ritual, Between Theater and Anthropology, Performance Studies: An Introduction, and Performed Imaginaries.
Ron Athey (born 1961) – American performance artist. His work explores challenging subjects like the relationships between desire, sexuality and traumatic experience. It often includes aspects of S&M and confronts preconceived ideas about the body in relation to masculinity and religious iconography.
Theatre as a Metaphor – First articulated by Erving Goffman and Richard Schechner. It poses the body as a stage and the societal structure as a theatre script. Taking all activities of ordinary life “as” performances, everyone is simultaneously subject and object repeating variations of the same actions over and over. “The body is a stage where the script is reenacted over and over again” (Kontouriotis, P)
Victor Turner (1920 – 1983) – British cultural anthropologist whose thinking has greately influenced our ideas about ritual. His work is often referred to as symbolic and interpretive anthropology.